The Centre for Continuing Education (CCE) offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook. Auditing will not be accepted as credit towards a degree program therefore students may not sit formal examinations.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00AM

12 Sessions
7 spots remaining.

Classical Sanskrit is the key to the treasure-trove of South Asian cultures, spirituality and wisdom. It is the primary language of classical Indian art, music, dance, literature and religion. It is also of interest to students of historical and comparative linguistics and provides a basis for the study of modern Indian languages. Many of our students are yoga teachers or practioners, adherents of Indian spiritual traditions, and students of South Asian heritage who wish to learn more about their cultural roots. 

ANU prides itself on teaching Sanskrit as a living tradition, in which performance and production of language are valued alongside the traditional requirements of grammar and reception. The course is flexibly delivered to students all over the world. Watch Dr McComas Taylor talk about Learning anytime, anywhere.

For further information see: http://chl.anu.edu.au/languages/sanskrit/  

For Sanskrit course enquiries email Dr McComas Taylor at McComas.Taylor@anu.edu.au

Course Description

(a) Grammar of classical Sanskrit 

(b) Reading of easy classical texts

(c) Living Sanskrit - conversation, chanting and singing

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Introductory level of Sanskrit to:
1. Pronounce all 49 sounds of the Sanskrit alphabet, read aloud simple example sentences, and chant the weekly verses accurately and joyously.
2. Write all 49 letters of the Sanskrit alphabet correctly, including conjunct consonants; write simple sentences accurately and aesthetically.
3. Use a vocabulary of 120 items.
4. Recognise and use the grammatical structures to read short texts and to translate basic sentences into and out of Sanskrit. These structures include: singular, dual and plural verb endings, for active and middle forms; the eight nominal cases; pronouns and adjectives; and the gerund.
5. Conduct simple conversations on such topics as: common greetings; friends and families; food and drink; and times of day.
6. Demonstrate a general understanding of the history, origins, status, and uses of Sanskrit

For full information, please visit: https://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/2018/course/SKRT1002

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

Classical Sanskrit is the key to the treasure-trove of South Asian cultures, spirituality and wisdom. It is the primary language of classical Indian art, music, dance, literature and religion. It is also of interest to students of historical and comparative linguistics and provides a basis for the study of modern Indian languages. Many of our students are yoga teachers or practioners, adherents of Indian spiritual traditions, and students of South Asian heritage who wish to learn more about their cultural roots. 

ANU prides itself on teaching Sanskrit as a living tradition, in which performance and production of language are valued alongside the traditional requirements of grammar and reception. The course is flexibly delivered to students all over the world. Watch Dr McComas Taylor talk about Learning anytime, anywhere.

For further information see: http://chl.anu.edu.au/languages/sanskrit/  

For Sanskrit course enquiries email Dr McComas Taylor at McComas.Taylor@anu.edu.au

Course description

This is a high-level reading course in Sanskrit literature. The four-year Sanskrit program is designed to introduce students to the broadest possible range of literary genres, including epic, courtly poetry, drama, Upani?adic verse and Vedic. This course will introduce final-year students to the important epigrammatical genre of sutra which is characterised by extreme brevity and density of expression. Sutra texts, as a result of their terseness, are often accompanied by commentaries by indigenous authors which explain and elaborate on the root-text. Commentaries themselves also form an important genre, and mastering the conventions associated with commentarial style is an important stage in a student's development as an independent reader of Sanskrit texts.

Learning outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Advanced level of Sanskrit to:

  1. Read extracts from an advanced-level text such as the Kamasutra or Gitagovinda fluently and accurately, and chant the verses with an appropriate meter. 
  2. Translate the vocabulary of the text in hand with an advanced level of competence in using a Sanskrit-English dictionary.
  3. Demonstrate thorough understanding of the advanced grammatical structures employed in these texts; demonstrate a high level of expertise in using reference grammars.
  4. Appreciate the linguistic registers of the root text, in contrast with other genres of Sanskrit literature, and reflect this in appropriate English translation; respond creatively to the root text in an appropriate medium.
  5. Demonstrate an advanced ability to interpret commentarial texts, showing an advanced understanding of commentarial techniques and vocabulary.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of the social and historical context of the target texts.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
9 spots remaining.

Classical Sanskrit is the key to the treasure-trove of South Asian cultures, spirituality and wisdom. It is the primary language of classical Indian art, music, dance, literature and religion. It is also of interest to students of historical and comparative linguistics and provides a basis for the study of modern Indian languages. Many of our students are yoga teachers or practioners, adherents of Indian spiritual traditions, and students of South Asian heritage who wish to learn more about their cultural roots. 

ANU prides itself on teaching Sanskrit as a living tradition, in which performance and production of language are valued alongside the traditional requirements of grammar and reception. The course is flexibly delivered to students all over the world. Watch Dr McComas Taylor talk about Learning anytime, anywhere.

For further information see: http://chl.anu.edu.au/languages/sanskrit/  

For Sanskrit course enquiries email Dr McComas Taylor at McComas.Taylor@anu.edu.au

Course description

Study of Sanskrit grammar and reading of selections from Sanskrit Literature.

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Advanced Beginner level of Sanskrit to:

  1. Read simple epic texts smoothly and accurately and chant texts in sloka meter.
  2. Translate the vocabulary of the text in hand through the basic use of a Sanskrit-English dictionary.
  3. Recognise the range of grammatical structures in standard epic Sanskrit texts, and demonstrate a working facility in using the reference grammatical text.
  4. Appraise the linguistic registers of the root text, in contrast with other genres of Sanskrit literature, and reflect this in appropriate English translation.
  5.  Demonstrate knowledge of the social and historical contexts of epic Sanskrit texts.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

Classical Sanskrit is the key to the treasure-trove of South Asian cultures, spirituality and wisdom. It is the primary language of classical Indian art, music, dance, literature and religion. It is also of interest to students of historical and comparative linguistics and provides a basis for the study of modern Indian languages. Many of our students are yoga teachers or practioners, adherents of Indian spiritual traditions, and students of South Asian heritage who wish to learn more about their cultural roots. 

ANU prides itself on teaching Sanskrit as a living tradition, in which performance and production of language are valued alongside the traditional requirements of grammar and reception. The course is flexibly delivered to students all over the world. Watch Dr McComas Taylor talk about Learning anytime, anywhere.

For further information see: http://chl.anu.edu.au/languages/sanskrit/  

For Sanskrit course enquiries email Dr McComas Taylor at McComas.Taylor@anu.edu.au

Course Description

The four-year Sanskrit program is designed to introduce students to the broadest possible range of literary genres, including epic, courtly poetry, drama, Upaniadic verse and Vedic. In this course, students will engage with a selection of readings from the Bhagavad Gita or a Purana or a similar text.

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Intermediate level of Sanskrit to:

  1. Read extracts from Sanskrit dramas smoothly and accurately.
  2. Translate the vocabulary of the text in hand with a high level of competence in the use of a Sanskrit-English dictionary.
  3. Demonstrate thorough understanding of the advanced grammatical structures employed in Sanskrit dramas, and demonstrate expertise in using reference grammars.
  4. Appraise the linguistic registers of the root text, in contrast with other genres of Sanskrit literature, and reflect this in appropriate English translation; respond creatively to the root text in an appropriate medium.
  5. Demonstrate an ability to interpret commentarial texts, showing an understanding of commentarial techniques and vocabulary.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of the social and historical contexts of Sanskrit dramas.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

Hindi opens the door to understanding India in countless ways, whether your interests are in travel, music, culture, arts, cinema, dance or literature. What is more Hindi and Urdu are closely related sister languages so whatever you learn in the year Hindi provides a basis for speaking both Hindi and Urdu. Hindi script is also easy to learn and reading and writing are taught as an integral part of first-semester study. Many students of Hindi are people who want to learn more about India or people of South Asian heritage wanting to explore in depth their cultural connections. Hindi is taught as a communicative language at ANU and classes provide ample opportunities to learn the four skills of comprehension, expression, reading and writing. There are also extensive online materials which support learning first-year Hindi at ANU.

For Hindi course enquiries email Peter Friedlander at peter.friedlander@anu.edu.au

Learning outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge at an Introductory level of Hindi to: 

  1. Recognise and pronounce all 52 Hindi sounds and the consonant and vowel combinations.
  2. Read and write all basic Hindi characters and their combinations.
  3. Use an active vocabulary of around 500 items and a passive vocabulary of 750 items.
  4. Understand and use a limited range of simple sentences and tenses for everyday situations.
  5. Communicate in everyday written and spoken contexts such as shopping, travel, and interacting with people.
  6. Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of status, age, gender, and religion on communication.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.  

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

Hindi opens the door to understanding India in countless ways, whether your interests are in travel, music, culture, arts, cinema, dance or literature. What is more Hindi and Urdu are closely related sister languages so whatever you learn in first year Hindi provides a basis for speaking both Hindi and Urdu. Hindi script is also easy to learn and reading and writing are taught as an integral part of first semester s  tudy. Many students of Hindi are people who want to learn more about India or people of South Asian heritage wanting to explore in depth their cultural connections. Hindi is taught as a communicative language at ANU and classes provide ample opportunities to learn the four skills of comprehension, expression, reading and writing. There are also extensive online materials which support learning first year Hindi at ANU.

For Hindi course enquiries email Peter Friedlander at peter.friedlander@anu.edu.au

Learning outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge at an Advanced Beginner level of Hindi to:

  1. Display an understanding of, and use, parallel Hindi and Urdu vocabularies in Hindi.
  2. Understand and use in written and spoken contexts a range of complex sentences and compound verb constructions relating to the manner in which events occur.
  3. Communicate in a wide range of contexts, such as discussing rural and urban life in India and Australia.
  4. Demonstrate an understanding of the impacts of development and modernity in India.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.  

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

Hindi opens the door to understanding India in countless ways, whether your interests are in travel, music, culture, arts, cinema, dance or literature. What is more Hindi and Urdu are closely related sister languages so whatever you learn in first year Hindi provides a basis for speaking both Hindi and Urdu. Hindi script is also easy to learn and reading and writing are taught as an integral part of first-semester study. Many students of Hindi are people who want to learn more about India or people of South Asian heritage wanting to explore in depth their cultural connections. Hindi is taught as a communicative language at ANU and classes provide ample opportunities to learn the four skills of comprehension, expression, reading and writing. There are also extensive online materials which support learning first-year Hindi at ANU.

For Hindi course enquiries email Peter Friedlander at peter.friedlander@anu.edu.au

Learning outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge at an Intermediate level of Hindi to: 

  1. Speak and write confidently in Hindi, demonstrating knowledge of regional forms and compound noun formations.
  2. Read and discuss common themes in a range of text types, such as magazines, newspapers, and literature, using appropriate sentence structures.
  3. Communicate with urban and rural Hindi speakers about personal lives and world views.
  4. Demonstrate an ability to read, discuss, and analyse current affairs coverage in India.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.  

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

This course will introduce students to the Burmese language, and provide them with communicative commands at an Introductory level, with an emphasis on conversation in everyday situations. Students will also begin to familiarise themselves with reading and writing Burmese script.

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Introductory level of Burmese to:

  1. 1. Recognise and pronounce the 32 Burmese consonants, seven basic vowels, and three tones, as well as other distinctive features of Burmese pronunciation such as glottal stops.
  2.  Reproduce Burmese pronunciation according to the Romanization system used by SOAS, London University, to support the basic use of English-Burmese and Burmese-English dictionaries; recognize the Burmese script and reproduce basic words in it.
  3. Use an active vocabulary of around 300 items.
  4. Recognise and produce sentence structures in colloquial Burmese to allow short conversations and the reading and writing of short, basic texts.
  5. Understand and compose basic forms of colloquial style of Burmese such as greetings and simple questions and answers about personal details, statements on the quantity and quality of things they encounter in everyday life.
  6. Demonstrate an understanding of basic cultural practices such as honorifics for Burmese names and the custom of birthdays of the week. 

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

This course will expand upon the competencies learned in Burmese 2. Students will develop lower intermediate spoken and written language skills in Burmese. By the end of the course, students will be able to conduct a simple conversation and find their way around in Myanmar. 

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Advanced Beginner level of Burmese to:

  1. Reproduce Burmese pronunciation in Burmese script, including basic words drawn from Pali.
  2. Use an active vocabulary around 1,100 items.
  3. Demonstrate knowledge of the syntax of colloquial Burmese for use in short conversations and texts on topics beyond those of daily life; demonstrate a basic knowledge of the grammar of literary Burmese and appropriate vocabulary for the style.
  4. Read and write in a more sophisticated style of colloquial Burmese on such specific or technical topics as university study and experiences in the workplace, with an awareness of formal and informal registers; read short passages written in the literary style, such as notices in public and some excerpts from Burmese school textbooks.
  5. 5. Analyse in depth the cultural and social practices of Burmese societies.

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

This course will introduce students to the Mongolian language. Students will start learning Modern Mongolian and use of the Cyrillic script, as well as basic Mongolian pronunciation and grammar. Through learning the language students will also be introduced to Mongolian cultures and traditions. By the end of the course, students will be able to use main cases and verb tenses in conversation and writing. 

Learning Outcomes

On satisfying the requirements of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills at an Introductory level of Mongolian to:
  1. Pronounce all Mongolian consonants, vowels, and the changes that occur when letters are stacked.
  2. Recognize the Mongolian Cyrillic script and reproduce its syllabary to write words with accuracy.
  3. Use correctly all 400 vocabulary items introduced in the course textbook.
  4. Identify and produce practised sentence structures in colloquial Mongolian, which will allow them to conduct basic conversations, write short notes, and read short texts on everyday concrete topics.
  5. Conduct a simple conversation based on models covered in the course textbook on such topics as: greetings; introducing personal details of themselves or family members; and talking about daily activities.
  6. Describe the national festivals, customs, costumes, and cultures of food and drink practised in Mongolia

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

Mon 19 Feb 2018 - Fri 25 May 2018

09:00

12 Sessions
10 spots remaining.

In the first year, students undertaking Introductory Arabic "A" and Introductory Arabic "B" develop basic competences in both written and oral grammatical patterns, both orally and in writing, using Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and learn to interact in limited aspects of everyday life situations. Emphasis at this stage is on mastering the Arabic sound system and pronunciation.

This course assumes no previous knowledge of the language. It covers the Arabic script, sound system and basic grammar rules. The teaching uses a new method of audio-visual and audio-lingual approach and is designed to develop the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing by the use of dialogues, class interaction and oral and written drills. Language laboratory work may be incorporated into the course. On completion of the course, students will have acquired the ability to speak at a basic level in Modern Standard Arabic, the ability to read and understand a range of simple Arabic texts within a vocabulary range of 300-400 most commonly used words, basic grammatical structures of the Arabic language and familiarity with some Arabic cultural practices and traditions.

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, students will have the knowledge and skills to:

  1. Recognise all of the characters of the Modern Standard Arabic alphabet;
  2. Read very simple text with high frequency structural patterns and vocabulary related to basic topics;
  3. Use Modern Standard Arabic alphabet (hand-written and typed) to write short and simple sentences and paragraphs with correct present and future tense and limited past tense about basic topics;
  4. Use a dictionary or online resources to assist own oral, aural, reading and written communication strategies;
  5. Communicate in simple conversations including greetings, courtesy requirements, personal and accommodation needs and provide simple biographical information; and
  6. Listen and respond to simple questions about basic topics.             

What is auditing?

Auditing or "listening in" offers access to some ANU undergraduate courses (lectures only).

The Centre for Continuing Education offers access to approved ANU undergraduate courses for people who want to listen in to lectures without actually enrolling as a degree student. Auditors (listeners) do not generally require any special qualifications except for those courses where prerequisites are necessary - this can be ascertained by consulting the current ANU Undergraduate Handbook.

Audit students may not sit formal examinations. An Audit enrolment guarantees admission only to lectures. Attendance at lectures will under no circumstances be accepted as credit towards a degree program. Auditors may seek permission from the faculty to attend tutorials (subject to space being available), additional fees may apply.

No dates are currently scheduled.

This content is located at http://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/course/HIST2110

This course will help you to become a better historian and a better analyst of historical writing.  It examines the principles, strategies and assumptions underlying different forms of history.  It also introduces current debates about the discipline.  The course will consider key developments in historical thought and method, from the classical period to the present day.  It will invite you to consider the social functions of historical writing, as well as to critically assess the methods and models employed by different schools and traditions of historical thought.  

Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

1)    Comprehend and constructively debate key philosophical and methodological issues central to the study of history and important to other disciplines in the humanities and social sciences.

2)    Critically analyse the methods which have been employed by different historians and schools of historical thought in their efforts to understand and write about the past 

3)    Detect the underlying premises and assumptions embedded in specific pieces of historical writing and/or other forms of historical media

4)    Construct sustained arguments concerning the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches to the study of the past

5)    Reflect on theoretical issues relevant to the practice of different forms of history and their implications for students’ own work